Resistor. Any metal whire has electrical resistance.
Capacitor(+ resistor). Two metal plates that can store energy between them.
Coil (+ capacitor + resistor). A wound whire that resists electrical current change.
Diode (+ coil + capacitor + resistor). Allows electrical current in one direction but not the other. Precursor of the transistor.
Operational amplifier. Makes use of all the above components to create a singular circuit capable of amplifying, filtering and much more.
Integrated circuit. The pinacle of electronics. Any component of the above doesn’t get smaller than in this package.
Stop breadboarding and soldering – start making immediately! Adafruit’s Circuit Playground is jam-packed with LEDs, sensors, buttons, alligator clip pads and more. Build projects with Circuit Playground in a few minutes with the drag-and-drop MakeCode programming site, learn computer science using the CS Discoveries class on code.org, jump into CircuitPython to learn Python and hardware together, TinyGO, or even use the Arduino IDE. Circuit Playground Express is the newest and best Circuit Playground board, with support for CircuitPython, MakeCode, and Arduino. It has a powerful processor, 10 NeoPixels, mini speaker, InfraRed receive and transmit, two buttons, a switch, 14 alligator clip pads, and lots of sensors: capacitive touch, IR proximity, temperature, light, motion and sound. A whole wide world of electronics and coding is waiting for you, and it fits in the palm of your hand.