This useful lecture handout (from a Stanford electronics course) comes courtesy the always insightful johngineer. While something inside me died when I read that aesthetics “is a foreign term to EE’s anyway”, it’s a great summary of some of the issues that need to be kept in mind choosing the right capacitor for the right situation, and describes some common situations where you’d use a capacitor and helps you select the right tool for the job. Read Capacitors Demystified for more.
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That high-speed comment did strike me as odd thought these notes are a bit old. Look at the range … 22µF max. Today you can get MLCC caps well beyond that. Still some good information in there, though.
Circuit Cellar INK for Feb. 2012 has an article by Ed Nisely about bypass caps. Self-resonance — basically the inductance hidden in the leads and the rest of the structure of the cap — has some amazing effects.