However, most games can’t afford to spend their time waiting in loops, especially during action scenes where CPU time is precious. For these cases, special hardware (called a mapper, because it uses its own memory mapping) is in the carts which can retrieve notifications when a certain scanline occurs removing the need to have wait loops at all. The game code can do whatever task it wants, whenever it wants, resulting in better cpu utilization.
Notice that all of the different moving sections occupy strict horizontal bands; that is, none of the background layers overlap each other. This is a consequence of the fact that splits are made by changing the scroll at individual scanlines.
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