0

World’s longest and deepest rail tunnel opens in Switzerland #Architecture

Gotthard base tunnel 1 1

Via Gizmag

A tunnel through the Alps in Switzerland that has taken 17 years to build officially opens today. The Gotthard Base Tunnel stretches for 57 km (35 mi), making it the longest rail tunnel in the world. In addition, at 2,300 m (7,546 ft) below the surface of the mountain in places, it is also the world’s deepest rail tunnel.

London’s Crossrail is regarded as the largest construction project in Europe, but includes only 42 km (26 mi) of new tunnels. The Gotthard Base Tunnel is also just over 3-km (1.9-mi) longer than the Seikan Tunnel in Japan and just under 7-km (4.3-mi) longer than the Channel Tunnel between the UK and France, both of which provide rail passage. It is the ninth longest tunnel of any type in use in the world.

If you take into account the two main tubes that comprise the Gotthard Base Tunnel and its various shafts, cross passages and access tunnels, it actually has 152 km (94 mi) of tunnels in total. It is also said to have virtually no gradients.

The initial idea for the tunnel was conceived 68 years ago, but the plans were redrawn on a number of occasions. Once construction finally commenced, there were 2,400 workers on site at peak times. Nine workers also lost their lives during the build.

There were a wide variety of different rock types through which it was necessary to bore, including granite and sedimentary rock. Around 80 percent of the work was carried out by tunnel boring machines, with the final 20 percent undertaken using blast methods. In total, 28.2 million tonnes (31.1 million tons) of material was excavated.

When work began on laying the slab track, the task took 125 workers working three shifts around the clock over three years to complete. The process used 131,000 cu m (4,626,200 cu ft) of concrete, 290 km (180 mi) of track and 380,000 sleepers.

Read more

Gotthard base tunnel 2


Stop breadboarding and soldering – start making immediately! Adafruit’s Circuit Playground is jam-packed with LEDs, sensors, buttons, alligator clip pads and more. Build projects with Circuit Playground in a few minutes with the drag-and-drop MakeCode programming site, learn computer science using the CS Discoveries class on code.org, jump into CircuitPython to learn Python and hardware together, or even use Arduino IDE. Circuit Playground Express is the newest and best Circuit Playground board, with support for MakeCode, CircuitPython, and Arduino. It has a powerful processor, 10 NeoPixels, mini speaker, InfraRed receive and transmit, two buttons, a switch, 14 alligator clip pads, and lots of sensors: capacitive touch, IR proximity, temperature, light, motion and sound. A whole wide world of electronics and coding is waiting for you, and it fits in the palm of your hand.

Join 10,000+ makers on Adafruit’s Discord channels and be part of the community! http://adafru.it/discord

CircuitPython 2019!

Have an amazing project to share? Join the SHOW-AND-TELL every Wednesday night at 7:30pm ET on Google+ Hangouts.

Join us every Wednesday night at 8pm ET for Ask an Engineer!

Follow Adafruit on Instagram for top secret new products, behinds the scenes and more https://www.instagram.com/adafruit/


Maker Business — Amazon’s mascot shows how even small measures can reinforce business culture

Wearables — The final environment

Electronics — Zener voltage

Biohacking — Metallic Mouth Taste

Python for Microcontrollers — Python snakes its way to Codecademy, beta 7, games, calculators, turning 6 and more! #Python #Adafruit #CircuitPython @circuitpython @micropython @ThePSF @Adafruit

Get the only spam-free daily newsletter about wearables, running a "maker business", electronic tips and more! Subscribe at AdafruitDaily.com !



No Comments

No comments yet.

Sorry, the comment form is closed at this time.