Interesting article Via Singularityhub
The carbon fiber legs or “blades” used by lower limb amputee runners have arguably become one of the most iconic symbols of the Paralympic Games. Although different lower-limb sports prostheses are used for running, jumping, and other activities, they share a single common aim: they are designed to help paralympians run faster and jump higher or further than other competitors. Form follows function.
For those who have prostheses for more everyday uses, however, their replacement limbs need to be able to adapt to different scenarios and perform a variety of functions, not just excel in one discipline — just like an actual leg. So how can we make prostheses feel more like the real thing rather than a specialist tool?
Whereas modern running blades have a distinctive hook shape, one of the most promising engineering approaches for everyday prostheses is to closely model the biological design of a leg, ankle and foot. This approach is referred to as “biomimicry.”
A “passive” ankle-foot prosthesis generally uses elastic like a spring to replicate the behavior of the Achilles tendon, storing elastic energy and releasing it before ankle push-off. “Active” prostheses additionally use an actuator or motor to make up for the power previously provided by the calf muscle at every step. Such prostheses have been shown to help users walk more like a non-amputee and improve symmetry between the biological and the artificial limb. At the moment, this mainly applies to walking overground at steady speeds rather than activities such as climbing stairs.
Other ways to make a prosthesis more like a biological leg and improve the user’s comfort are more simple. They also illustrate how important it is to involve the amputee in the design process. One user of the most advanced bionic ankle currently available told me its greatest feature was not that it provided a powered push-off or that it allowed them to walk more like a non-amputee. Instead, it was that the foot dropped flat on the ground when sitting with an outstretched leg, rather than sticking up awkwardly at a 90-degree angle (as is the case for the majority of prosthetic feet).
Another issue is how the prosthesis is controlled. Active prostheses now include on-board computers to control the motors and emulate human walking. Prostheses are effectively becoming more and more like wearable robots. What’s more, we can even use interfaces that read signals from the brain or muscles so that the user can operate the prosthesis like a real leg just by thinking and moving in their normal way. The next step being trialed is the use of implantable electrodes that send signals to the brain to give the user tactile feedback so they can feel the contact on the prosthesis as if it were their biological limb, closing the human-machine loop.