1844 – The Glaciarium, the world’s first mechanically frozen ice rink, opens.
The Glaciarium was the world’s first mechanically frozen ice rink.
An item in the 8 June 1844 issue of Littell’s Living Age headed “The Glaciarium” reports that “This establishment, which has been removed to Grafton street East’ Tottenham-court-road,was opened on Monday afternoon. The area of artificial ice is extremely convenient for such as may be desirous of engaging in the graceful and manly pastime of skating”.
A later rink was opened by John Gamgee in a tent in a small building just off the Kings Road in Chelsea, London, on 7 January 1876. In March, it moved to a permanent venue at 379 Kings Road, where a rink measuring 40 by 24 feet was established.
The rink was based on a concrete surface, with layers of earth, cow hair and timber planks. Atop these were laid oval copper pipes carrying a solution of glycerine with ether, nitrogen peroxide and water. The pipes were covered by water and the solution was pumped through, freezing the water into ice. Gamgee had discovered the process while attempting to develop a method to freeze meat for import from Australia and New Zealand, and had patented it as early as 1870.
Gamgee operated the rink on a membership-only basis and attempted to attract a wealthy clientele, experienced in open-air ice skating during winters in the Alps. He installed an orchestra gallery, which could also be used by spectators, and decorated the walls with views of the Swiss Alps.
The rink initially proved a success, and Gamgee opened two further rinks later in the year: at Rusholme in Manchester and the “Floating Glaciarium” at Charing Cross in London, this last significantly larger at 115 by 25 feet. However, the process was expensive, and mists rising from the ice deterred customers, forcing Gamgee to close the Glaciarium by the end of the year, and all his rinks had shut by mid-1878. However, the Southport Glaciarium opened in 1879, using Gamgee’s method.
1933 – The first drive-in theater opens in Camden, New Jersey, United States.
The drive-in theater was patented in Camden, New Jersey by chemical company magnate Richard M. Hollingshead, Jr., whose family owned and operated the R.M. Hollingshead Corporation chemical plant in Camden. In 1932, Hollingshead conducted outdoor theater tests in his driveway at 212 Thomas Avenue in Riverton. After nailing a screen to trees in his backyard, he set a 1928 Kodak projector on the hood of his car and put a radio behind the screen, testing different sound levels with his car windows down and up. Blocks under vehicles in the driveway enabled him to determine the size and spacing of ramps so all automobiles could have a clear view of the screen. Hollingshead applied for a patent of his invention on August 6, 1932, and he was given U.S. Patent 1,909,537 on May 16, 1933.
Hollingshead’s drive-in opened in New Jersey June 6, 1933, on Admiral Wilson Boulevard in Pennsauken Township, a short distance from Cooper River Park. Rosemont Avenue now runs through the prior location. It offered 400 slots and a 40 by 50 ft (12 by 15 m) screen. He advertised his drive-in theater with the slogan, “The whole family is welcome, regardless of how noisy the children are.” The first film shown was the Adolphe Menjou film Wife Beware. Failing to make a profit, Hollingshead sold the theater after three years to a Union, New Jersey theater owner who moved the infrastructure to that city, but the concept caught on nationwide.
1948 – Arlene Harris, American entrepreneur, inventor, investor and policy advocate, is born.
Arlene Joy Harris, also known as the “First Lady of Wireless,” is a serial entrepreneur and inventor. Harris holds numerous issued wireless communications patents. In May, 2007 she won industry-wide acclaim as the first woman inducted into the Wireless Hall of Fame.
10:50 a.m. When you purchase mag or newspapers apps they’re automatically downloaded and placed in the News Stand. Looks like a book shelf. It’s basically a modified folder UI just for publications. The cover for each mag or newspaper app shows the front page of the publication.
10:48 a.m. Feature #2: News Stand for newspapers and magazines. Many newspapers and magazines have signed up to support subscriptions already through iOS. Vanity Fair, Oprah, WIRED, The New Yorker, The Daily, The New York Times, etc.