1791 – Slaves from various plantations in Saint-Domingue hold a Vodou ceremony at Bois Caïman, marking the start of the Haitian Revolution.
In April 1791, a massive black insurgency in the north of the island rose violently against the plantation system, setting a precedent of resistance to racial slavery. In cooperation with their former mulatto rivals, blacks ended the Revolution in November 1803 when they decidedly defeated the French army at the Battle of Vertières. The French had already lost a high proportion of their troops to yellow fever and other diseases. After acknowledging defeat in Saint-Domingue, Napoleon withdrew from North America, agreeing to the Louisiana Purchase by the United States.
1848 – Irish scientist and astonomer Margaret Lindsay Murray is born.
Margaret’s early education took place privately at her home in Dublin, where she studied art, classics, literature, languages and music. She also spent some time at a school in Brighton, England. The exact location is unknown, but during this time period Brighton had at least two private boarding schools for girls, neither of which remain in their original location today.
Despite her successful career in Astronomy, Mary received no formal training in this field. Instead, she studied popular Astronomy books, including Sir John Herschel’s “Outlines of Astronomy”. Margaret also developed a keen interest in photography, which she studied in her spare time; something which would later play a role in her career.
In 1873, during a continued effort to educate herself, Margaret read a copy of the 19th century publication Good Words. Although a religious pamphlet, it often published articles on general subjects, and science. Here, Margaret found a piece by the group The British Association for the Advancement of Science (now the British Science Association) about the recent work done by William Huggins on the spectroscope
1885 – The first ever Japanese patent is issued to the inventor of a rust-proof paint.
The first substantial patent law in Japan was established by the “Patent Monopoly Act” (專賣特許條例 Senbai tokkyo jōrei) on April 18, 1885. (In 1954, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan declared April 18 to be Invention Day.)
The first seven patents under the Patent Monopoly Act were granted on August 14, 1885. Hotta Zuisho obtained Japanese Patent No. 1 for an anticorrosive paint. Takabayashi Kenzo obtained Patent No. 2–4 for tea processing machines.
During the Meiji era, all governmental systems underwent frequent changes, and the patent law was no exception. The Patent Monopoly Act was replaced by the Patent Act (特許條例 Tokkyo jōrei) in 1888; the Patent Act was replaced by the Patent Law (特許法 Tokkyohō) of 1899, which was completely revised in 1909. After the Meiji era, the Patent Act was completely revised twice, in 1921 and 1959.
1888 – During a London press conference introducing Thomas Edison’s phonograph, Edison played an audio recording of English composer Arthur Sullivan’s “The Lost Chord”, one of the first recordings of music ever made.
n 1888, Thomas Edison sent his “Perfected” Phonograph to Mr. George Gouraud in London, England, and on August 14, 1888, Gouraud introduced the phonograph to London in a press conference, including the playing of a piano and cornet recording of Sullivan’s “The Lost Chord,” one of the first recordings of music ever made.
A series of parties followed, introducing the phonograph to members of society at the so-called “Little Menlo” in London. Sullivan was invited to one of these on October 5, 1888.
1975 – The Rocky Horror Picture Show, the longest-running release in film history, opens in London.
The film opened in the United Kingdom at Rialto Theater in London 14 August 1975 and in the United States on 26 September at the UA Westwood in Los Angeles, California. It did well at that location, but not elsewhere. Before the midnight screenings’ success, the film was withdrawn from its eight opening cities due to very small audiences, and its planned New York City opening on Halloween night was cancelled. Fox re-released the film around college campuses on a double-bill with another rock music film parody, Brian De Palma’s Phantom of the Paradise, but again it drew small audiences.
With Pink Flamingos (1972) and Reefer Madness (1936) making money in midnight showings nationwide, a Fox executive, Tim Deegan, was able to talk distributors into midnight screenings, starting in New York City on April Fools’ Day of 1976. The cult following started shortly after the film began its midnight run at the Waverly Theater in New York City., then spread to other counties in NYC, and to Uniondale, L.I. Rocky Horror was not only found in the larger cities but throughout the United States where many attendees would get in free if they arrived in costume. The western division of the film’s release included the U.A. Cinemas in Fresno and Merced, the Cinema J. in Sacramento, California, and the Covell in Modesto. In New Orleans, an early organised performance group was active with the release there as well as in such cities as Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Chicago (at the Biograph Theater). Before long nearly every screening of the film was accompanied by a live fan cast.
The film is considered to be the longest-running release in film history. It has never been pulled by 20th Century Fox from its original 1975 release, and it continues to play in cinemas.