A rhombic dodecahedron is a Catalan solid, meaning it is built from a quantity of the same faces. Rhombuses are the parallelograms that make up this solid with a length to width ratio of √2:1. Dodecahedron means 12 (faces). It has 24 edges, 8 places where 3 joints meet, and 6 places where 4 joints meet.
The one property that sets this solid apart from many others is the fact that it fills a space perfectly with no gaps (nests perfectly), like hexagons do in 2D. In practice this means that the shape of the rhombic dodecahedron is visible in all the reflections. This is unlike the normal dodecahedron, where you get a fairly chaotic pattern.
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