In this video on Kathy Loves Physics & History, Kathy looks at how a military term for a grouping of cannons (a battery) came to also be the name for the electric battery.
Tl;Dr: The term battery was first used by Ben Franklin in 1749 to refer to a bank of Leyden jars because he thought they resembled a cannon battery. In 1799, the term resurfaced when Alessandro Volta used it in a paper to refer to his voltaic pile (the first battery). In the early 1800s, Humphry Davy would solidify use of the term through his very popular and groundbreaking electricity demos at the Royal Institute of London.
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